A monthlong investigation into drug crimes in and around Columbia led to the arrest of 30-year-old Joseph Roland on Friday.
Roland is charged with drug trafficking, being a felon in possession of a firearm and failure to register as a sex offender.
Police said they seized about 650 grams of cocaine, 38 pounds of marijuana, a handgun and more than $16,000 in cash.
Detectives estimated the amounts of cocaine and marijuana to be valued at tens of thousands of dollars.
Investigators said they've had their eyes on Roland because of his extensive criminal history.
They also said they believe capturing Roland may impact drug deals in the area.
"We also seized $16,500 in cash, mainly small denominations, so we suspect this individual was a major drug trafficker in the area," Detective Tom O'Sullivan of the Boone County Sheriff's Department told ABC 17 News.
Rolland is being held in the Boone County jail on a $60,000 cash-only bond.